Most image data and some associated data within The Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA) is stored in DICOM format. There are a variety of both open source and commercial DICOM tools that could be used to manipulate and view these files. While TCIA does not endorse nor recommend any particular tool, here is a list of tools that we or our partners have used in our daily work.
Note: The images in this image repository need to be downloaded before you can view them using the viewers.
See this link: https://wiki.cancerimagingarchive.net/dosearchsite.action?queryString=MATLAB
Study materials for physicists and other clinical scientists learning the basics of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): http://www.revisemri.com.
Abbreviations only: http://www.revisemri.com/questions/misc/mri_abbrev
DICOM standard abbreviations in a table: https://wiki.cancerimagingarchive.net/display/Public/DICOM+Modality+Abbreviations
And here are links to helpful information about using TCIA.